How to Repair Windows 11

Repairing Windows will fix corrupt or damaged files causing problems with your operating system. This can help resolve issues with your computer that prevent it from working properly. It can also boost your computer’s performance and speed. This guide will show you how to repair Windows 11.

Use a Windows Troubleshooter

Windows Troubleshooter is a Microsoft tool that can automatically fix many common problems with your Windows 11, including problems with your registry, performance issues, Windows Update, network and printer connectivity, Bluetooth, and more.

  1. Go to Settings > System > Troubleshoot.

    Head to Settings > System > Troubleshoot.
    Go to Troubleshoot.
  2. Click Other troubleshooters.

    Click Other troubleshooters.
    Click Other troubleshooters.
  3. Depending on your problem, find the concerned troubleshooter and click the Run button next to it.

    Find the concerned troubleshooter and click the Run button next to it.
    Click the Run button next to the troubleshooter.
  4. The troubleshooter will then scan your system for the problem and attempt to fix it.

    The troubleshoot scans your system for the problem.
    The troubleshoot scans your system for the problem.

Repair Drivers

Drivers allow your computer to communicate with its hardware. When drivers become outdated, corrupted, or broken, you can experience many problems. You can repair, update, roll back, or uninstall your drivers from the Device Manager.

  1. Press the Windows key + R on your keyboard to open the Run dialog box. Type “devmgmt.msc” and click OK to open Device Manager.

    Type devmgmt.msc.
    Type devmgmt.msc.
  2. Once in Device Manager, click Scan for hardware changes to scan for any outdated or broken drivers.

    Click the Scan for hardware changes button.
    Click the Scan for hardware changes button.
  3. If you see a yellow exclamation mark next to a device, this means it has a problem. Right-click the device and select Update driver from the drop-down menu.

    Select Update driver.
    Select Update driver.
  4. Two options will appear:
    Search automatically for drivers: will search online for the latest drivers and install them.
    Browse my computer for drivers: will browse your computer for the driver files. If you have the drivers on a disc, or downloaded them on your system from the manufacturer’s website, you can use this option to install them.

    Two options appear: Search automatically for drivers and Browse my computer for drivers.
    Select one of the options.

Uninstall recent Windows updates

If the issue started appearing after you installed a recent Windows update, the update might be causing the problem. To fix it, you can uninstall the update.

  1. Go to Settings > Windows Update > Update history.

    Head to Settings > Windows Update > Update history.
    Go to Update history.
  2. Scroll down and find the Uninstall updates button.

    Find the Uninstall updates button.
    Select Uninstall updates.
  3. This takes you to a separate Control Panel window with a list of updates installed on your system.

    A list of all the updates that have been installed on your system.
    List of installed updates.
  4. Select the most recent update (if you feel that’s causing the issues) and click Uninstall.

    Click Uninstall.
    Click Uninstall.
  5. Confirm that you want to uninstall the update and click Yes.

    Click Yes.
    Click Yes.
  6. The selected update will now be uninstalled. Restart your computer and check if the problem is fixed.

Use the SFC command prompt tool

SFC stands for System File Checker, a tool that scans your Windows 11 for corrupt or damaged system files and then attempts to repair them.

  1. Click the Start button and type “cmd.” Right-click the first result and select Run as administrator.

    Run cmd as administrator.
    Run cmd as administrator.
  2. Type the following command and press Enter.
    sfc /scannow

    Type sfc /scannow into the Command Prompt.
    Type sfc /scannow.
  3. The SFC scan will now start. It can take a while to finish, so be patient.

    The SFC scan will take a while to finish.
    The SFC scan will take a while to finish.
  4. If the scan finds that your system is doing well, you’ll see the message Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations. Otherwise, if there are damaged files, this tool gives you the option to repair them.

    The Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations message.
    Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations.

Use the DISM command prompt tool

DISM (Deployment Image Servicing and Management) is another command prompt tool you can use to fix various Windows 11 issues.

  1. Click the Start button and type “Command Prompt.” Right-click the first result and select Run as administrator.

    Run cmd as administrator.
    Run cmd as administrator.
  2. Type the following command and press Enter.
    dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth

    Type the DISM command.
    Type the DISM command.
  3. Once finished, the tool will report its findings.

    DISM findings.
    DISM findings.

Run CHKDSK

CHKDSK stands for Check Disk, a tool that can scans your Windows 11 for errors then attempts to fix them.

  1. Click the Start button and type “Command Prompt.” Right-click the first result and select Run as administrator.

    Run cmd as administrator.
    Run cmd as administrator.
  2. Type chkdsk C: /f /r into the Command Prompt window and press Enter. Replace “C” with the letter of the drive where Windows 11 is installed.

    The CHKDSK command.
    The CHKDSK command.
  3. A message will now appear asking you if you want to schedule the disk check on the next restart. Press Y.

    Press Y.
    Press Y.
  4. Restart your computer, and the CHKDSK scan will start.

Make sure there’s no malware

Malware can prevent Windows from starting up properly and can cause other performance issues. If you’re having problems with your PC, it’s a good idea to scan your system for malware. I recommend using a reliable antivirus program such as Bitdefender or Malwarebytes.

Use System Restore

System Restore is a feature that allows you to roll back your Windows 11 to a previous state. This can be useful if you recently installed an update or driver causing issues with your system. To use this feature, you need to have a restore point created previously.

  1. Click the Start button and type “Create a restore point”. Choose the first result.

    Click the Create a restore point icon.
    Create a restore point.
  2. The System Properties window will now open. Click System Restore.

    Click the System Restore button.
    System Restore…
  3. The System Restore window will now appear with two options:
    Recommended restore: This will undo your recent installations and updates after the selected restore point was created.
    Choose a different restore point: This will revert your entire system to a specific date.

    Two options: Recommended restore and Choose a different restore point.
    Two options: Recommended restore and Choose a different restore point.
  4. Choose the option appropriate for you, and click Next.

    Click Next.
    Click Next.
  5. Click Finish to confirm your restore point and start the process.

    Click Finish.
    Press Finish.

Use Windows 11 Startup Repair

Windows has a built-in tool that automatically fixes many common problems with your installation, including startup issues.

  1. You’ll need to access the Advanced startup options. To do that, restart your computer while holding down the Shift key.
  2. Go to Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Startup Repair.
    Go to Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Startup Repair.
    Go to Startup Repair.

    Windows will start scanning your system for startup problems and attempt to fix them automatically.

  3. If the startup repair fails or cannot fix the problem, you’ll see a message that says Startup Repair couldn’t repair your PC. This means that Windows cannot automatically fix the problem, and you’ll need to try another method.

    The Startup Repair couldn’t repair your PC message.
    Startup Repair couldn’t repair your PC message.

Delete files to free up drive space

Low disk space is often the cause of slowdowns and other performance issues on your computer, so it’s important to keep an eye on how much free space you have. If you have a lot of large files, such as videos or photos, you may need to delete some of them to free up space.

Fix boot issues

Boot issues are problems that prevent your computer from starting up or booting into Windows. This is caused by various issues, such as a corrupt boot partition or hardware problems. If you have boot issues with Windows 11, you can use the Bootrec.exe tool to repair the boot sector.

  1. To run this tool, you need to boot into safe mode. To do this, press and hold the SHIFT key while restarting your computer.
  2. Once your computer has booted into safe mode, go to Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Command Prompt.

    go to Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Command Prompt.
    Go to Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Command Prompt.
  3. In the Command Prompt console, type the following commands one by one and hit Enter after each:
    bootrec /fixmbr
    bootrec /fixboot
    bcdedit /export c:\bcdbackup
    attrib c:\boot\bcd -h -r -s
    ren c:\boot\bcd bcd.old
    bootrec /rebuildbcd
  4. After running all the commands, reboot your system and check if the issue is fixed.

Reset your PC

This built-in tool allows you to refresh or reset your system to its factory default settings. This can be useful if you’re having problems with your PC and want to start fresh by reinstalling Windows. You should consider this as a last resort option.

  1. Click the Start button and then click the Settings icon.

    Open the Settings app.
    Open the Settings app.
  2. Click System > Recovery.

    Select System > Recovery
    Select System > Recovery
  3. Select Reset PC.

    Click Reset PC
    Click Reset PC
  4. A pop-up window will ask if you want to keep your files or remove everything. Select your preferred option and click Reset.

    Two options appear: Keep my files or Remove everything.
    Two options: Keep my files or Remove everything.
  5. Another two options will appear:
    Cloud download: Your PC will download a fresh copy of Windows from the internet and install it. This approach takes more time, needs an internet connection, and will consume around 4GB of data. 
    Local reinstall: Your Windows will use the existing system files on your hard drive and reinstall Windows.

    Two options appear: Cloud download or Local reinstall.
    Two options: Cloud download or Local reinstall.
  6. After choosing an option, click Next on the following screen.

    Click Next.
    Click Next.
  7. Click Reset to start the reset process.

    Press Reset.
    Press Reset.

Clean Install Windows 11

If all the above methods fail, your last resort would be to clean install Windows 11. This will delete all the files and programs on your hard drive and install a fresh copy of Windows. Here is our comprehensive guide on how to reinstall Windows 11.

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